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  Excel Worksheet Functions

This page lists all of the built-in Excel Worksheet Functions grouped by category. Each of the functions including full description, examples of how to use, related tips & tricks and common errors.

In Excel 2010 and later, several functions have been implemented with new algorithms for improved accuracy.

Tip: To quickly find your search term on this page, press Ctrl F or F (Mac) and use the find bar.

DAVERAGE
Returns the average of selected database entries
DCOUNT
Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database
DCOUNTA
Counts nonblank cells in a database
DGET
Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria
DMAX
Returns the maximum value from selected database entries
DMIN
Returns the minimum value from selected database entries
DPRODUCT
Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database
DSTDEV
Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries
DSTDEVP
Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries
DSUM
Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria
DVAR
Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries
DVARP
Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries
DATE
Returns the serial number of a particular date
DATEVALUE
Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number
DAY
Converts a serial number to a day of the month
DAYS360
Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year
EDATE
Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date
EOMONTH
Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months
HOUR
Converts a serial number to an hour
MINUTE
Converts a serial number to a minute
MONTH
Converts a serial number to a month
NETWORKDAYS
Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates
NOW
Returns the serial number of the current date and time
SECOND
Converts a serial number to a second
TIME
Returns the serial number of a particular time
TIMEVALUE
Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number
TODAY
Returns the serial number of today's date
WEEKDAY
Converts a serial number to a day of the week
WEEKNUM
Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year
WORKDAY
Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays
YEAR
Converts a serial number to a year
YEARFRAC
Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date
BESSELI
Returns the modified Bessel function In(x)
BESSELJ
Returns the Bessel function Jn(x)
BESSELK
Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x)
BESSELY
Returns the Bessel function Yn(x)
BIN2DEC
Converts a binary number to decimal
BIN2HEX
Converts a binary number to hexadecimal
BIN2OCT
Converts a binary number to octal
COMPLEX
Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number
CONVERT
Converts a number from one measurement system to another
DEC2BIN
Converts a decimal number to binary
DEC2HEX
Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal
DEC2OCT
Converts a decimal number to octal
DELTA
Tests whether two values are equal
ERF
Returns the error function
ERFC
Returns the complementary error function
GESTEP
Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value
HEX2BIN
Converts a hexadecimal number to binary
HEX2DEC
Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal
HEX2OCT
Converts a hexadecimal number to octal
IMABS
Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number
IMAGINARY
Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number
IMARGUMENT
Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians
IMCONJUGATE
Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number
IMCOS
Returns the cosine of a complex number
IMDIV
Returns the quotient of two complex numbers
IMEXP
Returns the exponential of a complex number
IMLN
Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number
IMLOG10
Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number
IMLOG2
Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number
IMPOWER
Returns a complex number raised to an integer power
IMPRODUCT
Returns the product of from 2 to 29 complex numbers
IMREAL
Returns the real coefficient of a complex number
IMSIN
Returns the sine of a complex number
IMSQRT
Returns the square root of a complex number
IMSUB
Returns the difference between two complex numbers
IMSUM
Returns the sum of complex numbers
OCT2BIN
Converts an octal number to binary
OCT2DEC
Converts an octal number to decimal
OCT2HEX
Converts an octal number to hexadecimal
ACCRINT
Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest
ACCRINTM
Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity
AMORDEGRC
Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient
AMORLINC
Returns the depreciation for each accounting period
COUPDAYBS
Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date
COUPDAYS
Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date
COUPDAYSNC
Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date
COUPNCD
Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date
COUPNUM
Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date
COUPPCD
Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date
CUMIPMT
Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods
CUMPRINC
Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods
DB
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method
DDB
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify
DISC
Returns the discount rate for a security
DOLLARDE
Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number
DOLLARFR
Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction
DURATION
Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments
EFFECT
Returns the effective annual interest rate
FV
Returns the future value of an investment
FVSCHEDULE
Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates
INTRATE
Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security
IPMT
Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period
IRR
Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows
ISPMT
Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment
MDURATION
Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100
MIRR
Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates
NOMINAL
Returns the annual nominal interest rate
NPER
Returns the number of periods for an investment
NPV
Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate
ODDFPRICE
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period
ODDFYIELD
Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period
ODDLPRICE
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period
ODDLYIELD
Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period
PMT
Returns the periodic payment for an annuity
PPMT
Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period
PRICE
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest
PRICEDISC
Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security
PRICEMAT
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity
PV
Returns the present value of an investment
RATE
Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity
RECEIVED
Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security
SLN
Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period
SYD
Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period
TBILLEQ
Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill
TBILLPRICE
Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill
TBILLYIELD
Returns the yield for a Treasury bill
VDB
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method
XIRR
Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic
XNPV
Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic
YIELD
Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest
YIELDDISC
Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill
YIELDMAT
Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity
CELL
Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell
ERROR.TYPE
Returns a number corresponding to an error type
INFO
Returns information about the current operating environment
ISBLANK
Returns TRUE if the value is blank
ISERR
Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A
ISERROR
Returns TRUE if the value is any error value
ISEVEN
Returns TRUE if the number is even
ISLOGICAL
Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value
ISNA
Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value
ISNONTEXT
Returns TRUE if the value is not text
ISNUMBER
Returns TRUE if the value is a number
ISODD
Returns TRUE if the number is odd
ISREF
Returns TRUE if the value is a reference
ISTEXT
Returns TRUE if the value is text
N
Returns a value converted to a number
NA
Returns the error value #N/A
TYPE
Returns a number indicating the data type of a value
AND
Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE
FALSE
Returns the logical value FALSE
IF
Specifies a logical test to perform
NOT
Reverses the logic of its argument
OR
Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE
TRUE
Returns the logical value TRUE
ADDRESS
Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet
AREAS
Returns the number of areas in a reference
CHOOSE
Chooses a value from a list of values
COLUMN
Returns the column number of a reference
COLUMNS
Returns the number of columns in a reference
GETPIVOTDATA
Returns data stored in a PivotTable
HLOOKUP
Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell
HYPERLINK
Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet
INDEX
Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array
INDIRECT
Returns a reference indicated by a text value
LOOKUP
Looks up values in a vector or array
MATCH
Looks up values in a reference or array
OFFSET
Returns a reference offset from a given reference
ROW
Returns the row number of a reference
ROWS
Returns the number of rows in a reference
RTD
Retrieves real-time data from a program that supports?COM automation
TRANSPOSE
Returns the transpose of an array
VLOOKUP
Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell
ABS
Returns the absolute value of a number
ACOS
Returns the arccosine of a number
ACOSH
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number
ASIN
Returns the arcsine of a number
ASINH
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number
ATAN
Returns the arctangent of a number
ATAN2
Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates
ATANH
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number
CEILING
Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
COMBIN
Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects
COS
Returns the cosine of a number
COSH
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number
DEGREES
Converts radians to degrees
EVEN
Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer
EXP
Returns?e?raised to the power of a given number
FACT
Returns the factorial of a number
FACTDOUBLE
Returns the double factorial of a number
FLOOR
Rounds a number down, toward zero
GCD
Returns the greatest common divisor
INT
Rounds a number down to the nearest integer
LCM
Returns the least common multiple
LN
Returns the natural logarithm of a number
LOG
Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base
LOG10
Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number
MDETERM
Returns the matrix determinant of an array
MINVERSE
Returns the matrix inverse of an array
MMULT
Returns the matrix product of two arrays
MOD
Returns the remainder from division
MROUND
Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple
MULTINOMIAL
Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers
ODD
Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer
PI
Returns the value of pi
POWER
Returns the result of a number raised to a power
PRODUCT
Multiplies its arguments
QUOTIENT
Returns the integer portion of a division
RADIANS
Converts degrees to radians
RAND
Returns a random number between 0 and 1
RANDBETWEEN
Returns a random number between the numbers you specify
ROMAN
Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text
ROUND
Rounds a number to a specified number of digits
ROUNDDOWN
Rounds a number down, toward zero
ROUNDUP
Rounds a number up, away from zero
SERIESSUM
Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula
SIGN
Returns the sign of a number
SIN
Returns the sine of the given angle
SINH
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number
SQRT
Returns a positive square root
SQRTPI
Returns the square root of (number * pi)
SUBTOTAL
Returns a subtotal in a list or database
SUM
Adds its arguments
SUMIF
Adds the cells specified by a given criteria
SUMPRODUCT
Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components
SUMSQ
Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments
SUMX2MY2
Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays
SUMX2PY2
Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays
SUMXMY2
Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays
TAN
Returns the tangent of a number
TANH
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number
TRUNC
Truncates a number to an integer
AVEDEV
Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean
AVERAGE
Returns the average of its arguments
AVERAGEA
Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values
BETADIST
Returns the beta cumulative distribution function
BETAINV
Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution
BINOMDIST
Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability
CHIDIST
Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
CHIINV
Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
CHITEST
Returns the test for independence
CONFIDENCE
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean
CORREL
Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets
COUNT
Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments
COUNTA
Counts how many values are in the list of arguments
COUNTBLANK
Counts the number of blank cells within a range
COUNTIF
Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria
COVAR
Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations
CRITBINOM
Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value
DEVSQ
Returns the sum of squares of deviations
EXPONDIST
Returns the exponential distribution
FDIST
Returns the F probability distribution
FINV
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution
FISHER
Returns the Fisher transformation
FISHERINV
Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation
FORECAST
Returns a value along a linear trend
FREQUENCY
Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array
FTEST
Returns the result of an F-test
GAMMADIST
Returns the gamma distribution
GAMMAINV
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution
GAMMALN
Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x)
GEOMEAN
Returns the geometric mean
GROWTH
Returns values along an exponential trend
HARMEAN
Returns the harmonic mean
HYPGEOMDIST
Returns the hypergeometric distribution
INTERCEPT
Returns the intercept of the linear regression line
KURT
Returns the kurtosis of a data set
LARGE
Returns the k-th largest value in a data set
LINEST
Returns the parameters of a linear trend
LOGEST
Returns the parameters of an exponential trend
LOGINV
Returns the inverse of the lognormal distribution
LOGNORMDIST
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution
MAX
Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments
MAXA
Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values
MEDIAN
Returns the median of the given numbers
MIN
Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments
MINA
Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values
MODE
Returns the most common value in a data set
NEGBINOMDIST
Returns the negative binomial distribution
NORMDIST
Returns the normal cumulative distribution
NORMINV
Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution
NORMSDIST
Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution
NORMSINV
Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution
PEARSON
Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient
PERCENTILE
Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range
PERCENTRANK
Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set
PERMUT
Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects
POISSON
Returns the Poisson distribution
PROB
Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits
QUARTILE
Returns the quartile of a data set
RANK
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers
RSQ
Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient
SKEW
Returns the skewness of a distribution
SLOPE
Returns the slope of the linear regression line
SMALL
Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set
STANDARDIZE
Returns a normalized value
STDEV
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample
STDEVA
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values
STDEVP
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population
STDEVPA
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values
STEYX
Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression
TDIST
Returns the Student's t-distribution
TINV
Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution
TREND
Returns values along a linear trend
TRIMMEAN
Returns the mean of the interior of a data set
TTEST
Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test
VAR
Estimates variance based on a sample
VARA
Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values
VARP
Calculates variance based on the entire population
VARPA
Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values
WEIBULL
Returns the Weibull distribution
ZTEST
Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test
ASC
Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to half-width (single-byte) characters
BAHTTEXT
Converts a number to text, using the ? (baht) currency format
CHAR
Returns the character specified by the code number
CLEAN
Removes all nonprintable characters from text
CODE
Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string
CONCATENATE
Joins several text items into one text item
DOLLAR
Converts a number to text, using the $ (dollar) currency format
EXACT
Checks to see if two text values are identical
FIND, FINDB
Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive)
FIXED
Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals
WIDECHAR
Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters
LEFT, LEFTB
Returns the leftmost characters from a text value
LEN, LENB
Returns the number of characters in a text string
LOWER
Converts text to lowercase
MID, MIDB
Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify
PHONETIC
Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string
PROPER
Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value
REPLACE, REPLACEB
Replaces characters within text
REPT
Repeats text a given number of times
RIGHT, RIGHTB
Returns the rightmost characters from a text value
SEARCH, SEARCHB
Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive)
SUBSTITUTE
Substitutes new text for old text in a text string
T
Converts its arguments to text
TEXT
Formats a number and converts it to text
TRIM
Removes spaces from text
UPPER
Converts text to uppercase
VALUE
Converts a text argument to a number
EUROCONVERT
Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation)
SQL.REQUEST
Connects with an external data source and runs a query from a worksheet, then returns the result as an array without the need for macro programming