# Excel Worksheet Functions

This page lists all of the built-in Excel Worksheet Functions grouped by category. Each of the functions including full description, examples of how to use, related tips & tricks and common errors.

In Excel 2010 and later, several functions have been implemented with new algorithms for improved accuracy.

Tip: To quickly find your search term on this page, press Ctrl F or F (Mac) and use the find bar.

## Compatibility functions

In Excel 2010 or later, these functions were replaced with new functions that provide improved accuracy and have names that better reflect their usage. You can still use them for compatibility with earlier versions of Excel, but if backward compatibility isn't required, you should start using the new functions instead.

Returns the beta cumulative distribution function.
New function: BETA.DIST function.
BETAINV
BETAINV(probability,alpha,beta,[A],[B])
Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution.
New function: BETA.INV function.
BINOMDIST
BINOMDIST(number_s,trials,probability_s,cumulative)
Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.
New function: BINOM.DIST function.
CHIDIST
CHIDIST(x,deg_freedom)
Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
New function: CHISQ.DIST function and CHISQ.DIST.RT function.
CHIINV
CHIINV(probability,deg_freedom)
Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
New function: CHISQ.INV function and CHISQ.INV.RT function.
CHITEST
CHITEST(actual_range,expected_range)
Returns the test for independence.
New function: CHISQ.TEST function.
CONFIDENCE
CONFIDENCE(alpha,standard_dev,size)
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean.
New function: CONFIDENCE.NORM function and CONFIDENCE.T function.
COVAR
COVAR(array1,array2)
Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations.
New function: COVARIANCE.P function and COVARIANCE.S function.
CRITBINOM
CRITBINOM(trials,probability_s,alpha)
Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value.
New function: BINOM.INV function.
EXPONDIST
EXPONDIST(x,lambda,cumulative)
Returns the exponential distribution.
New function: EXPON.DIST function.
FDIST
FDIST(x,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)
Returns the F probability distribution.
New function: F.DIST function and F.DIST.RT function.
FINV
FINV(probability,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.
New function: F.INV function and F.INV.RT function.
FTEST
FTEST(array1,array2)
Returns the result of an F-test.
New function: F.TEST function.
Returns the gamma distribution.
New function: GAMMA.DIST function.
GAMMAINV
GAMMAINV(probability,alpha,beta)
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution.
New function: GAMMA.INV function.
HYPGEOMDIST
HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s,number_sample,population_s,number_pop)
Returns the hypergeometric distribution.
New function: HYPGEOM.DIST function.
Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function.
New function: LOGNORM.INV function.
LOGNORMDIST
LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution.
New function: LOGNORM.DIST function.
MODE
MODE(number1,[number2],...)
Returns the most common value in a data set.
New function: MODE.MULT function and MODE.SNGL function.
NEGBINOMDIST
NEGBINOMDIST(number_f,number_s,probability_s)
Returns the negative binomial distribution.
New function: NEGBINOM.DIST function.
NORMDIST
LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)
Returns the normal cumulative distribution.
New function: NORM.DIST function.
NORMINV
NORMINV(probability,mean,standard_dev)
Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution.
New function: NORM.INV function.
NORMSDIST
NORMSDIST(z)
Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution.
New function: NORM.S.DIST function.
NORMSINV
NORMSINV(probability)
Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution.
New function: NORM.S.INV function.
PERCENTILE
PERCENTILE(array,k)
Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range.
New function: PERCENTILE.EXC function and PERCENTILE.INC function.
PERCENTRANK
PERCENTRANK(array,x,[significance])
Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set.
New function: PERCENTRANK.EXC function and PERCENTRANK.INC function.
POISSON
POISSON(x,mean,cumulative)
Returns the Poisson distribution.
New function: POISSON.DIST function.
QUARTILE
QUARTILE(array,quart)
Returns the quartile of a data set.
New function: QUARTILE.EXC function and QUARTILE.INC function.
RANK
RANK(number,ref,[order])
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.
New function: RANK.AVG function and RANK.EQ function.
STDEV
STDEV(number1,[number2],...)
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample.
New function: STDEV.S function.
STDEVP
STDEVP(number1,[number2],...)
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population.
New function: STDEV.P function.
TDIST
TDIST(x,deg_freedom,tails)
Returns the Student's t-distribution.
New function: T.DIST.2T function and T.DIST.RT function.
TINV
TINV(probability,deg_freedom)
Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution.
New function: T.INV.2T function or T.INV function.
TTEST
TTEST(array1,array2,tails,type)
Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test.
New function: T.TEST function.
VAR
VAR(number1,[number2],...)
Estimates variance based on a sample.
New function: VAR.S function.
VARP
VARP(number1,[number2],...)
Calculates variance based on the entire population.
New function: VAR.P function.
WEIBULL
WEIBULL(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)
Returns the Weibull distribution.
New function: WEIBULL.DIST function.
ZTEST
ZTEST(array,x,[sigma])
Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test.
New function: Z.TEST function.

## Cube Functions

CUBEKPIMEMBER
CUBEKPIMEMBER(connection, kpi_name, kpi_property, [caption])
Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) property and displays the KPI name in the cell.
CUBEMEMBER
CUBEMEMBER(connection, member_expression, [caption])
Returns a member or tuple from the cube.
CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY
CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY(connection, member_expression, property)
Returns the value of a member property from the cube.
CUBERANKEDMEMBER
CUBERANKEDMEMBER(connection, set_expression, rank, [caption])
Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set.
CUBESET
CUBESET(connection, set_expression, [caption], [sort_order], [sort_by])
Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel.
CUBESETCOUNT
CUBESETCOUNT(set)
Returns the number of items in a set.
CUBEVALUE
CUBEVALUE(connection, [member_expression1], [member_expression2], …)
Returns an aggregated value from the cube.

## Database Functions

DAVERAGE
DAVERAGE(database, field, criteria)
Returns the average of selected database entries.
DCOUNT
DCOUNT(database, field, criteria)
Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database.
DCOUNTA
DCOUNTA(database, field, criteria)
Counts nonblank cells in a database.
DGET
DGET(database, field, criteria)
Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria.
DMAX
DMAX(database, field, criteria)
Returns the maximum value from selected database entries.
DMIN
DMIN(database, field, criteria)
Returns the minimum value from selected database entries.
DPRODUCT
DPRODUCT(database, field, criteria)
Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database.
DSTDEV
DSTDEV(database, field, criteria)
Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries.
DSTDEVP
DSTDEVP(database, field, criteria)
Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries.
DSUM
DSUM(database, field, criteria)
Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria.
DVAR
DVAR(database, field, criteria)
Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries.
DVARP
DVARP(database, field, criteria)
Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries.

## Date and Time Functions

DATE
DATE(year,month,day)
Returns the serial number of a particular date.
DATEVALUE
DATEVALUE(date_text)
Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number.
DAY
DAY(serial_number)
Converts a serial number to a day of the month.
DAYS
DAYS(end_date, start_date)
Returns the number of days between two dates.
DAYS360
DAYS360(start_date,end_date,[method])
Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year.
EDATE
EDATE(start_date, months)
Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date.
EOMONTH
EOMONTH(start_date, months)
Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months.
HOUR
HOUR(serial_number)
Converts a serial number to an hour.
ISOWEEKNUM
ISOWEEKNUM(date)
Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date.
MINUTE
MINUTE(serial_number)
Converts a serial number to a minute.
MONTH
MONTH(serial_number)
Converts a serial number to a month.
NETWORKDAYS
NETWORKDAYS(start_date, end_date, [holidays])
Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates.
NETWORKDAYS.INTL
NETWORKDAYS.INTL(start_date, end_date, [weekend], [holidays])
Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days.
NOW
NOW()
Returns the serial number of the current date and time.
SECOND
SECOND(serial_number)
Converts a serial number to a second.
TIME
TIME(hour, minute, second)
Returns the serial number of a particular time.
TIMEVALUE
TIMEVALUE(time_text)
Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number.
TODAY
TODAY()
Returns the serial number of today's date.
WEEKDAY
WEEKDAY(serial_number,[return_type])
Converts a serial number to a day of the week.
WEEKNUM
WEEKNUM(serial_number,[return_type])
Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year.
WORKDAY
WORKDAY(start_date, days, [holidays])
Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays.
WORKDAY.INTL
WORKDAY.INTL(start_date, days, [weekend], [holidays])
Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days.
YEAR
YEAR(serial_number)
Converts a serial number to a year.
YEARFRAC
YEARFRAC(start_date, end_date, [basis])
Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date.

## Engineering Functions

BESSELI
BESSELI(X, N)
Returns the modified Bessel function In(x).
BESSELJ
BESSELJ(X, N)
Returns the Bessel function Jn(x).
BESSELK
BESSELK(X, N)
Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x).
BESSELY
BESSELY(X, N)
Returns the Bessel function Yn(x).
BIN2DEC
BIN2DEC(number)
Converts a binary number to decimal.
BIN2HEX
BIN2HEX(number, [places])
Converts a binary number to hexadecimal.
BIN2OCT
BIN2OCT(number, [places])
Converts a binary number to octal.
BITAND
BITAND( number1, number2)
Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers.
BITLSHIFT
BITLSHIFT(number, shift_amount)
Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits.
BITOR
BITOR(number1, number2)
Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers.
BITRSHIFT
BITRSHIFT(number, shift_amount)
Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits.
BITXOR
BITXOR(number1, number2)
Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers.
COMPLEX
COMPLEX(real_num, i_num, [suffix])
Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number.
CONVERT
CONVERT(number,from_unit,to_unit)
Converts a number from one measurement system to another.
DEC2BIN
DEC2BIN(number, [places])
Converts a decimal number to binary.
DEC2HEX
DEC2HEX(number, [places])
Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal.
DEC2OCT
DEC2OCT(number, [places])
Converts a decimal number to octal.
DELTA
DELTA(number1, [number2])
Tests whether two values are equal.
ERF
ERF(lower_limit,[upper_limit])
Returns the error function.
ERF.PRECISE
ERF.PRECISE(x)
Returns the error function.
ERFC
ERFC(x)
Returns the complementary error function.
ERFC.PRECISE
ERFC.PRECISE(x)
Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity.
GESTEP
GESTEP(number, [step])
Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value.
HEX2BIN
HEX2BIN(number, [places])
Converts a hexadecimal number to binary.
HEX2DEC
HEX2DEC(number)
Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal.
HEX2OCT
HEX2OCT(number, [places])
Converts a hexadecimal number to octal.
IMABS
IMABS(inumber)
Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number.
IMAGINARY
IMAGINARY(inumber)
Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number.
IMARGUMENT
IMARGUMENT(inumber)
Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians.
IMCONJUGATE
IMCONJUGATE(inumber)
Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number.
IMCOS
IMCOS(inumber)
Returns the cosine of a complex number.
IMCOSH
IMCOSH(inumber)
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number.
IMCOT
IMCOT(inumber)
Returns the cotangent of a complex number.
IMCSC
IMCSC(inumber)
Returns the cosecant of a complex number.
IMCSCH
IMCSCH(inumber)
Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number.
IMDIV
IMDIV(inumber1, inumber2)
Returns the quotient of two complex numbers.
IMEXP
IMEXP(inumber)
Returns the exponential of a complex number.
IMLN
IMLN(inumber)
Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number.
IMLOG10
IMLOG10(inumber)
Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number.
IMLOG2
IMLOG2(inumber)
Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number.
IMPOWER
IMPOWER(inumber, number)
Returns a complex number raised to an integer power.
IMPRODUCT
IMPRODUCT(inumber1, [inumber2], ...)
Returns the product of from 2 to 29 complex numbers.
IMREAL
IMREAL(inumber)
Returns the real coefficient of a complex number.
IMSEC
IMSEC(inumber)
Returns the secant of a complex number.
IMSECH
IMSECH(inumber)
Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number.
IMSIN
IMSIN(inumber)
Returns the sine of a complex number.
IMSINH
IMSINH(inumber)
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number.
IMSQRT
IMSQRT(inumber)
Returns the square root of a complex number.
IMSUB
IMSUB(inumber1, inumber2)
Returns the difference between two complex numbers.
IMSUM
IMSUM(inumber1, [inumber2], ...)
Returns the sum of complex numbers.
IMTAN
IMTAN(inumber)
Returns the tangent of a complex number.
OCT2BIN
OCT2BIN(number, [places])
Converts an octal number to binary.
OCT2DEC
OCT2DEC(number)
Converts an octal number to decimal.
OCT2HEX
OCT2HEX(number, [places])
Converts an octal number to hexadecimal.

## Financial Functions

ACCRINT
ACCRINT(issue, first_interest, settlement, rate, par, frequency, [basis], [calc_method])
Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest.
ACCRINTM
ACCRINTM(issue, settlement, rate, par, [basis])
Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity.
AMORDEGRC
AMORDEGRC(cost, date_purchased, first_period, salvage, period, rate, [basis])
Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient.
AMORLINC
AMORLINC(cost, date_purchased, first_period, salvage, period, rate, [basis])
Returns the depreciation for each accounting period.
COUPDAYBS
COUPDAYBS(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])
Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date.
COUPDAYS
COUPDAYS(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])
Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date.
COUPDAYSNC
COUPDAYSNC(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])
Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date.
COUPNCD
COUPNCD(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])
Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date.
COUPNUM
COUPNUM(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])
Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date.
COUPPCD
COUPPCD(settlement, maturity, frequency, [basis])
Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date.
CUMIPMT
CUMIPMT(rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type)
Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods.
CUMPRINC
CUMPRINC(rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type)
Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods.
DB
DB(cost, salvage, life, period, [month])
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method.
DDB
DDB(cost, salvage, life, period, [factor])
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify.
DISC
DISC(settlement, maturity, pr, redemption, [basis])
Returns the discount rate for a security.
DOLLARDE
DOLLARDE(fractional_dollar, fraction)
Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number.
DOLLARFR
DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar, fraction)
Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction.
DURATION
DURATION(settlement, maturity, coupon, yld, frequency, [basis])
Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments.
EFFECT
EFFECT(nominal_rate, npery)
Returns the effective annual interest rate.
FV
FV(rate,nper,pmt,[pv],[type])
Returns the future value of an investment.
FVSCHEDULE
FVSCHEDULE(principal, schedule)
Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates.
INTRATE
INTRATE(settlement, maturity, investment, redemption, [basis])
Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security.
IPMT
IPMT(rate, per, nper, pv, [fv], [type])
Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period.
IRR
IRR(values, [guess])
Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows.
ISPMT
ISPMT(rate, per, nper, pv)
Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment.
MDURATION
MDURATION(settlement, maturity, coupon, yld, frequency, [basis])
Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100.
MIRR
MIRR(values, finance_rate, reinvest_rate)
Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates.
NOMINAL
NOMINAL(effect_rate, npery)
Returns the annual nominal interest rate.
NPER
NPER(rate,pmt,pv,[fv],[type])
Returns the number of periods for an investment.
NPV
NPV(rate,value1,[value2],...)
Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate.
ODDFPRICE
ODDFPRICE(settlement, maturity, issue, first_coupon, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, [basis])
Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd first period.
ODDFYIELD
ODDFYIELD(settlement, maturity, issue, first_coupon, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, [basis])
Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period.
ODDLPRICE
ODDLPRICE(settlement, maturity, last_interest, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, [basis])
Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd last period.
ODDLYIELD
ODDLYIELD(settlement, maturity, last_interest, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, [basis])
Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period.
PDURATION
PDURATION(rate, pv, fv)
Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value.
PMT
PMT(rate, nper, pv, [fv], [type])
Returns the periodic payment for an annuity.
PPMT
PPMT(rate, per, nper, pv, [fv], [type])
Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period.
PRICE
PRICE(settlement, maturity, rate, yld, redemption, frequency, [basis])
Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest.
PRICEDISC
PRICEDISC(settlement, maturity, discount, redemption, [basis])
Returns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security.
PRICEMAT
PRICEMAT(settlement, maturity, issue, rate, yld, [basis])
Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity.
PV
PV(rate, nper, pmt, [fv], [type])
Returns the present value of an investment.
RATE
RATE(nper, pmt, pv, [fv], [type], [guess])
Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity.
Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security.
RRI
RRI(nper, pv, fv)
Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment.
SLN
SLN(cost, salvage, life)
Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period.
SYD
SYD(cost, salvage, life, per)
Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period.
TBILLEQ
TBILLEQ(settlement, maturity, discount)
Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill.
TBILLPRICE
TBILLPRICE(settlement, maturity, discount)
Returns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill.
TBILLYIELD
TBILLYIELD(settlement, maturity, pr)
Returns the yield for a Treasury bill.
VDB
VDB(cost, salvage, life, start_period, end_period, [factor], [no_switch])
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method.
XIRR
XIRR(values, dates, [guess])
Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic.
XNPV
XNPV(rate, values, dates)
Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic.
YIELD
YIELD(settlement, maturity, rate, pr, redemption, frequency, [basis])
Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest.
YIELDDISC
YIELDDISC(settlement, maturity, pr, redemption, [basis])
Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill.
YIELDMAT
YIELDMAT(settlement, maturity, issue, rate, pr, [basis])
Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity.

## Information Functions

CELL
CELL(info_type, [reference])
Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell.
ERROR.TYPE
ERROR.TYPE(error_val)
Returns a number corresponding to an error type.
INFO
INFO(type_text)
Returns information about the current operating environment.
ISBLANK
ISBLANK(value)
Returns TRUE if the value is blank.
ISERR
ISERR(value)
Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A.
ISERROR
ISERROR(value)
Returns TRUE if the value is any error value.
ISEVEN
ISEVEN(number)
Returns TRUE if the number is even.
ISFORMULA
ISFORMULA(reference)
Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula.
ISLOGICAL
ISLOGICAL(value)
Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value.
ISNA
ISNA(value)
Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value.
ISNONTEXT
ISNONTEXT(value)
Returns TRUE if the value is not text.
ISNUMBER
ISNUMBER(value)
Returns TRUE if the value is a number.
ISODD
ISODD(value)
Returns TRUE if the number is odd.
ISREF
ISREF(value)
Returns TRUE if the value is a reference.
ISTEXT
ISTEXT(value)
Returns TRUE if the value is text.
N
N(value)
Returns a value converted to a number.
NA
NA()
Returns the error value #N/A.
SHEET
SHEET(value)
Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet.
SHEETS
SHEETS(reference)
Returns the number of sheets in a reference.
TYPE
TYPE(value)
Returns a number indicating the data type of a value.

## Logical Functions

AND
AND(logical1, [logical2], ...)
Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE.
FALSE
FALSE()
Returns the logical value FALSE.
IF
IF(logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])
Specifies a logical test to perform.
IFERROR
IFERROR(value, value_if_error)
Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula.
IFNA
IFNA(value, value_if_na)
Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression.
NOT
NOT(logical)
Reverses the logic of its argument.
OR
OR(logical1, [logical2], ...)
Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE.
TRUE
TRUE()
Returns the logical value TRUE.
XOR
XOR(logical1, [logical2],…)
Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments.

## Lookup and Reference Functions

Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet.
AREAS
AREAS(reference)
Returns the number of areas in a reference.
CHOOSE
CHOOSE(index_num, value1, [value2], ...)
Chooses a value from a list of values.
COLUMN
COLUMN([reference])
Returns the column number of a reference.
COLUMNS
COLUMNS(array)
Returns the number of columns in a reference.
FORMULATEXT
FORMULATEXT(reference)
Returns the formula at the given reference as text.
GETPIVOTDATA
GETPIVOTDATA(data_field, pivot_table, [field1, item1, field2, item2], ...)
Returns data stored in a PivotTable.
HLOOKUP
HLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, row_index_num, [range_lookup])
Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell.
Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet.
INDEX
INDEX(array, row_num, [column_num])
Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array.
INDIRECT
INDIRECT(ref_text, [a1])
Returns a reference indicated by a text value.
LOOKUP
LOOKUP(lookup_value, lookup_vector, [result_vector])
Looks up values in a vector or array.
MATCH
MATCH(lookup_value, lookup_array, [match_type])
Looks up values in a reference or array.
OFFSET
OFFSET(reference, rows, cols, [height], [width])
Returns a reference offset from a given reference.
ROW
ROW([reference])
Returns the row number of a reference.
ROWS
ROWS(array)
Returns the number of rows in a reference.
RTD
RTD(ProgID, server, topic1, [topic2], ...)
Retrieves real-time data from a program that supports?COM automation.
TRANSPOSE
TRANSPOSE(array)
Returns the transpose of an array.
VLOOKUP
VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, [range_lookup])
Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell.

## Math and Trigonometry Functions

ABS
ABS(number)
Returns the absolute value of a number.
ACOS
ACOS(number)
Returns the arccosine of a number.
ACOSH
ACOSH(number)
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.
ACOT
ACOT(number)
Returns the arccotangent of a number.
ACOTH
ACOTH(number)
Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number.
AGGREGATE
AGGREGATE(function_num, options, ref1, [ref2], …)
Returns an aggregate in a list or database.
ARABIC
ARABIC( text )
Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number.
ASIN
ASIN(number)
Returns the arcsine of a number.
ASINH
ASINH(number)
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.
ATAN
ATAN(number)
Returns the arctangent of a number.
ATAN2
ATAN2(x_num, y_num)
Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates.
ATANH
ATANH(number)
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.
BASE
Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base).
CEILING
CEILING(number, significance)
Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
CEILING.MATH
CEILING.MATH(number, [significance], [mode])
Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
CEILING.PRECISE
CEILING.PRECISE(number, [significance])
Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.
COMBIN
COMBIN(number, number_chosen)
Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects.
COMBINA
COMBINA(number, number_chosen)
Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items.
COS
COS(number)
Returns the cosine of a number.
COSH
COSH(number)
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.
COT
COT(number)
Returns the cotangent of an angle.
COTH
COTH(number)
Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a number.
CSC
CSC(number)
Returns the cosecant of an angle.
CSCH
CSCH(number)
Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle.
DECIMAL
Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number.
DEGREES
DEGREES(angle)
EVEN
EVEN(number)
Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer.
EXP
EXP(number)
Returns?e?raised to the power of a given number.
FACT
FACT(number)
Returns the factorial of a number.
FACTDOUBLE
FACTDOUBLE(number)
Returns the double factorial of a number.
FLOOR
FLOOR(number, significance)
Rounds a number down, toward zero.
FLOOR.MATH
FLOOR.MATH(number, significance, mode)
Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
FLOOR.PRECISE
FLOOR.PRECISE(number, [significance])
Rounds a number down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded down.
GCD
GCD(number1, [number2], ...)
Returns the greatest common divisor.
INT
INT(number)
Rounds a number down to the nearest integer.
ISO.CEILING
ISO.CEILING(number, [significance])
Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
LCM
LCM(number1, [number2], ...)
Returns the least common multiple.
LN
LN(number)
Returns the natural logarithm of a number.
LOG
LOG(number, [base])
Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base.
LOG10
LOG10(number)
Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number.
MDETERM
MDETERM(array)
Returns the matrix determinant of an array.
MINVERSE
MINVERSE(array)
Returns the matrix inverse of an array.
MMULT
MMULT(array1, array2)
Returns the matrix product of two arrays.
MOD
MOD(number, divisor)
Returns the remainder from division.
MROUND
MROUND(number, multiple)
Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple.
MULTINOMIAL
MULTINOMIAL(number1, [number2], ...)
Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers.
MUNIT
MUNIT(dimension)
Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension.
ODD
ODD(number)
Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer.
PI
PI()
Returns the value of pi.
POWER
POWER(number, power)
Returns the result of a number raised to a power.
PRODUCT
PRODUCT(number1, [number2], ...)
Multiplies its arguments.
QUOTIENT
QUOTIENT(numerator, denominator)
Returns the integer portion of a division.
RAND
RAND()
Returns a random number between 0 and 1.
RANDBETWEEN
RANDBETWEEN(bottom, top)
Returns a random number between the numbers you specify.
ROMAN
ROMAN(number, [form])
Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text.
ROUND
ROUND(number, num_digits)
Rounds a number to a specified number of digits.
ROUNDDOWN
ROUNDDOWN(number, num_digits)
Rounds a number down, toward zero.
ROUNDUP
ROUNDUP(number, num_digits)
Rounds a number up, away from zero.
SEC
SEC(number)
Returns the secant of an angle.
SECH
SECH(number)
Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle.
SERIESSUM
SERIESSUM(x, n, m, coefficients)
Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula.
SIGN
SIGN(number)
Returns the sign of a number.
SIN
SIN(number)
Returns the sine of the given angle.
SINH
SINH(number)
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.
SQRT
SQRT(number)
Returns a positive square root.
SQRTPI
SQRTPI(number)
Returns the square root of (number * pi).
SUBTOTAL
SUBTOTAL(function_num,ref1,[ref2],...])
Returns a subtotal in a list or database.
SUM
SUM(number1,[number2],...])
SUMIF
SUMIF(range, criteria, [sum_range])
Adds the cells specified by a given criteria.
SUMIFS
SUMIFS(sum_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...)
Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria.
SUMPRODUCT
SUMPRODUCT(array1, [array2], [array3], ...)
Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components.
SUMSQ
SUMSQ(number1, [number2], ...)
Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments.
SUMX2MY2
SUMX2MY2(array_x, array_y)
Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.
SUMX2PY2
SUMX2PY2(array_x, array_y)
Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.
SUMXMY2
SUMXMY2(array_x, array_y)
Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays.
TAN
TAN(number)
Returns the tangent of a number.
TANH
TANH(number)
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.
TRUNC
TRUNC(number, [num_digits])
Truncates a number to an integer.

## Statistical Functions

AVEDEV
Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean.
AVERAGE
Returns the average of its arguments.
AVERAGEA
Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values.
AVERAGEIF
AVERAGEIF(range, criteria, [average_range])
Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria.
AVERAGEIFS
AVERAGEIFS(average_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...)
Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria.
Returns the beta cumulative distribution function
New function: BETA.DIST function.
BETA.DIST
BETA.DIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative,[A],[B])
Returns the beta cumulative distribution function.
BETAINV
BETAINV(probability,alpha,beta,[A],[B])
Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution
New function: BETA.INV function.
BETA.INV
BETA.INV(probability,alpha,beta,[A],[B])
Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution.
BINOMDIST
BINOMDIST(number_s,trials,probability_s,cumulative)
Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability
New function: BINOM.DIST function.
BINOM.DIST
BINOM.DIST(number_s,trials,probability_s,cumulative)
Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.
BINOM.DIST.RANGE
BINOM.DIST.RANGE(trials,probability_s,number_s,[number_s2])
Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution.
BINOM.INV
BINOM.INV(trials,probability_s,alpha)
Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value.
CHIDIST
CHIDIST(x,deg_freedom)
Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
New function: CHISQ.DIST function and CHISQ.DIST.RT function.
CHISQ.DIST
CHISQ.DIST(x,deg_freedom,cumulative)
Returns the cumulative beta probability density function.
CHISQ.DIST.RT
CHISQ.DIST.RT(x,deg_freedom)
Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
CHIINV
CHIINV(probability,deg_freedom)
Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
New function: CHISQ.INV function and CHISQ.INV.RT function.
CHISQ.INV
CHISQ.INV(probability,deg_freedom)
Returns the cumulative beta probability density function.
CHISQ.INV.RT
CHISQ.INV.RT(probability,deg_freedom)
Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
CHITEST
CHITEST(actual_range,expected_range)
Returns the test for independence
New function: CHISQ.TEST function.
CHISQ.TEST
CHISQ.TEST(actual_range,expected_range)
Returns the test for independence.
CONFIDENCE
CONFIDENCE(alpha,standard_dev,size)
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean
New function: CONFIDENCE.NORM function and CONFIDENCE.T function.
CONFIDENCE.NORM
CONFIDENCE.NORM(alpha,standard_dev,size)
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean.
CONFIDENCE.T
CONFIDENCE.T(alpha,standard_dev,size)
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution.
CORREL
Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets.
COUNT
Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments.
COUNTA
Counts how many values are in the list of arguments.
COUNTBLANK
Counts the number of blank cells within a range.
COUNTIF
Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria.
COUNTIFS
COUNTIFS(criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2]…)
Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria.
COVAR
COVAR(array1,array2)
Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations
New function: COVARIANCE.P function and COVARIANCE.S function.
COVARIANCE.P
COVARIANCE.P(array1,array2)
Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations.
COVARIANCE.S
COVARIANCE.S(array1,array2)
Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets.
CRITBINOM
CRITBINOM(trials,probability_s,alpha)
Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value
New function: BINOM.INV function.
DEVSQ
Returns the sum of squares of deviations.
EXPONDIST
EXPONDIST(x,lambda,cumulative)
Returns the exponential distribution
New function: EXPON.DIST function.
EXPON.DIST
EXPON.DIST(x,lambda,cumulative)
Returns the exponential distribution.
FDIST
FDIST(x,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)
Returns the F probability distribution
New function: F.DIST function and F.DIST.RT function.
F.DIST
F.DIST(x,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2,cumulative)
Returns the F probability distribution.
F.DIST.RT
F.DIST.RT(x,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)
Returns the F probability distribution.
FINV
FINV(probability,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution
New function: F.INV function and F.INV.RT function.
F.INV
F.INV(probability,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.
F.INV.RT
F.INV.RT(probability,deg_freedom1,deg_freedom2)
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.
FTEST
FTEST(array1,array2)
Returns the result of an F-test
New function: F.TEST function.
F.TEST
F.TEST(array1,array2)
Returns the result of an F-test.
FISHER
Returns the Fisher transformation.
FISHERINV
Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation.
FORECAST
Returns a value along a linear trend.
FREQUENCY
Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array.
GAMMA
GAMMA(number)
Returns the Gamma function value.
Returns the gamma distribution
New function: GAMMA.DIST function.
GAMMA.DIST
GAMMA.DIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)
Returns the gamma distribution.
GAMMAINV
GAMMAINV(probability,alpha,beta)
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution
New function: GAMMA.INV function.
GAMMA.INV
GAMMA.INV(probability,alpha,beta)
Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution.
GAMMALN
Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x).
GAMMALN.PRECISE
GAMMALN.PRECISE(x)
Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x).
GAUSS
GAUSS(number)
Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution.
GEOMEAN
Returns the geometric mean.
GROWTH
Returns values along an exponential trend.
HARMEAN
Returns the harmonic mean.
HYPGEOMDIST
HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s,number_sample,population_s,number_pop)
Returns the hypergeometric distribution
New function: HYPGEOM.DIST function.
HYPGEOM.DIST
HYPGEOM.DIST(sample_s,number_sample,population_s,number_pop,cumulative)
Returns the hypergeometric distribution.
INTERCEPT
Returns the intercept of the linear regression line.
KURT
Returns the kurtosis of a data set.
LARGE
Returns the k-th largest value in a data set.
LINEST
Returns the parameters of a linear trend.
LOGEST
Returns the parameters of an exponential trend.
Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function
New function: LOGNORM.INV function.
LOGNORM.INV
LOGNORM.INV(probability, mean, standard_dev)
Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution.
LOGNORMDIST
LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution
New function: LOGNORM.DIST function.
LOGNORM.DIST
LOGNORM.DIST(x,mean,standard_dev,cumulative)
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution.
MAX
Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments.
MAXA
Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values.
MEDIAN
Returns the median of the given numbers.
MIN
Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments.
MINA
Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values.
MODE
MODE(number1,[number2],...)
Returns the most common value in a data set
New function: MODE.MULT function and MODE.SNGL function.
MODE.MULT
MODE.MULT(number1,[number2],...)
Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data.
MODE.SNGL
MODE.SNGL(number1,[number2],...])
Returns the most common value in a data set.
NEGBINOMDIST
NEGBINOMDIST(number_f,number_s,probability_s)
Returns the negative binomial distribution
New function: NEGBINOM.DIST function.
NEGBINOM.DIST
NEGBINOM.DIST(number_f,number_s,probability_s,cumulative)
Returns the negative binomial distribution.
NORMDIST
LOGNORMDIST(x,mean,standard_dev)
Returns the normal cumulative distribution
New function: NORM.DIST function.
NORM.DIST
NORM.DIST(x,mean,standard_dev,cumulative)
Returns the normal cumulative distribution.
NORMINV
NORMINV(probability,mean,standard_dev)
Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution
New function: NORM.INV function.
NORM.INV
NORM.INV(probability,mean,standard_dev)
Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution.
NORMSDIST
NORMSDIST(z)
Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution
New function: NORM.S.DIST function.
NORM.S.DIST
NORM.S.DIST(z,cumulative)
Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution.
NORMSINV
NORMSINV(probability)
Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution
New function: NORM.S.INV function.
NORM.S.INV
NORM.S.INV(probability)
Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution.
PEARSON
Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient.
PERCENTILE
PERCENTILE(array,k)
Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range
New function: PERCENTILE.EXC function and PERCENTILE.INC function.
PERCENTILE.EXC
PERCENTILE.EXC(array,k)
Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive.
PERCENTILE.INC
PERCENTILE.INC(array,k)
Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range.
PERCENTRANK
PERCENTRANK(array,x,[significance])
Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set
New function: PERCENTRANK.EXC function and PERCENTRANK.INC function.
PERCENTRANK.EXC
PERCENTRANK.EXC(array,x,[significance])
Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set.
PERCENTRANK.INC
PERCENTRANK.INC(array,x,[significance])
Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set.
PERMUT
Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects.
PERMUTATIONA
PERMUTATIONA(number, number-chosen)
Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects.
PHI
PHI(x)
Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution.
POISSON
POISSON(x,mean,cumulative)
Returns the Poisson distribution
New function: POISSON.DIST function.
POISSON.DIST
POISSON.DIST(x,mean,cumulative)
Returns the Poisson distribution.
PROB
Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits.
QUARTILE
QUARTILE(array,quart)
Returns the quartile of a data set
New function: QUARTILE.EXC function and QUARTILE.INC function.
QUARTILE.EXC
QUARTILE.EXC(array, quart)
Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive.
QUARTILE.INC
QUARTILE.INC(array,quart)
Returns the quartile of a data set.
RANK
RANK(number,ref,[order])
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers
New function: RANK.AVG function and RANK.EQ function.
RANK.AVG
RANK.AVG(number,ref,[order])
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.
RANK.EQ
RANK.EQ(number,ref,[order])
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.
RSQ
Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient.
SKEW
Returns the skewness of a distribution.
SKEW.P
SKEW.P(number 1, [number 2],…)
Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean.
SLOPE
Returns the slope of the linear regression line.
SMALL
Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set.
STANDARDIZE
Returns a normalized value.
STDEV
STDEV(number1,[number2],...)
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample
New function: STDEV.S function.
STDEV.P
STDEV.P(number1,[number2],...)
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population.
STDEV.S
STDEV.S(number1,[number2],...)
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample.
STDEVA
Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values.
STDEVP
STDEVP(number1,[number2],...)
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population
New function: STDEV.P function.
STDEVPA
Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values.
STEYX
Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression.
TDIST
TDIST(x,deg_freedom,tails)
Returns the Student's t-distribution
New function: T.DIST.2T function and T.DIST.RT function.
T.DIST
T.DIST(x,deg_freedom, cumulative)
Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution.
T.DIST.2T
T.DIST.2T(x,deg_freedom)
Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution.
T.DIST.RT
T.DIST.RT(x,deg_freedom)
Returns the Student's t-distribution.
TINV
TINV(probability,deg_freedom)
Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution
New function: T.INV.2T function or T.INV function.
T.INV
T.INV(probability,deg_freedom)
Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom.
T.INV.2T
T.INV.2T(probability,deg_freedom)
Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution.
TREND
Returns values along a linear trend.
TRIMMEAN
Returns the mean of the interior of a data set.
TTEST
TTEST(array1,array2,tails,type)
Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test
New function: T.TEST function.
T.TEST
T.TEST(array1,array2,tails,type)
Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test.
VAR
VAR(number1,[number2],...)
Estimates variance based on a sample
New function: VAR.S function.
VAR.P
VAR.P(number1,[number2],...])
Calculates variance based on the entire population.
VAR.S
VAR.S(number1,[number2],...])
Estimates variance based on a sample.
VARA
Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values.
VARP
VARP(number1,[number2],...)
Calculates variance based on the entire population
New function: VAR.P function.
VARPA
Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values.
WEIBULL
WEIBULL(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)
Returns the Weibull distribution
New function: WEIBULL.DIST function.
WEIBULL.DIST
WEIBULL.DIST(x,alpha,beta,cumulative)
Returns the Weibull distribution.
ZTEST
ZTEST(array,x,[sigma])
Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test
New function: Z.TEST function.
Z.TEST
Z.TEST(array,x,[sigma])
Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test.

## Text Functions

ASC
ASC(text)
Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to half-width (single-byte) characters.
BAHTTEXT
BAHTTEXT(number)
Converts a number to text, using the ? (baht) currency format.
CHAR
CHAR(number)
Returns the character specified by the code number.
CLEAN
CLEAN(text)
Removes all nonprintable characters from text.
CODE
CODE(text)
Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string.
CONCATENATE
CONCATENATE(text1, [text2], ...)
Joins several text items into one text item.
DOLLAR
DOLLAR(number, [decimals])
Converts a number to text, using the \$ (dollar) currency format.
EXACT
EXACT(text1, text2)
Checks to see if two text values are identical.
FIND
FIND(find_text, within_text, [start_num])
Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive).
FINDB
FINDB(find_text, within_text, [start_num])
Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive).
FIXED
FIXED(number, [decimals], [no_commas])
Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals.
WIDECHAR
WIDECHAR(text)
Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters.
JIS
JIS(text)
Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters.
LEFT
LEFT(text, [num_chars])
Returns the leftmost characters from a text value.
LEFTB
LEFTB(text, [num_bytes])
Returns the leftmost characters from a text value.
LEN
LEN(text)
Returns the number of characters in a text string.
LENB
LENB(text)
Returns the number of characters in a text string.
LOWER
LOWER(text)
Converts text to lowercase.
MID
MID(text, start_num, num_chars)
Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify.
MIDB
MIDB(text, start_num, num_bytes)
Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify.
NUMBERVALUE
NUMBERVALUE(Text, [Decimal_separator], [Group_separator ])
Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner.
PHONETIC
PHONETIC(reference)
Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string.
PROPER
PROPER(text)
Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value.
REPLACE
REPLACE(old_text, start_num, num_chars, new_text)
Replaces characters within text.
REPLACEB
REPLACEB(old_text, start_num, num_bytes, new_text)
Replaces characters within text.
REPT
REPT(text, number_times)
Repeats text a given number of times.
RIGHT
RIGHT(text,[num_chars])
Returns the rightmost characters from a text value.
RIGHTB
RIGHTB(text,[num_bytes])
Returns the rightmost characters from a text value.
SEARCH
SEARCH(find_text,within_text,[start_num])
Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive).
SEARCHB
SEARCHB(find_text,within_text,[start_num])
Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive).
SUBSTITUTE
SUBSTITUTE(text, old_text, new_text, [instance_num])
Substitutes new text for old text in a text string.
T
T(value)
Converts its arguments to text.
TEXT
TEXT(value, format_text)
Formats a number and converts it to text.
TRIM
TRIM(text)
Removes spaces from text.
UNICHAR
UNICHAR(number)
Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value.
UNICODE
UNICODE(text)
Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text.
UPPER
UPPER(text)
Converts text to uppercase.
VALUE
VALUE(text)
Converts a text argument to a number.

## User Defined Functions

CALL
CALL(register_id,[argument1],...])
Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource.
EUROCONVERT
EUROCONVERT(number,source,target,full_precision,triangulation_precision)
Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation).
REGISTER.ID
REGISTER.ID(module_text,procedure,[type_text])
Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered.
SQL.REQUEST
SQL.REQUEST(connection_string,[output_ref],[driver_prompt],[query_text],[col_names_logical])
Connects with an external data source and runs a query from a worksheet, then returns the result as an array without the need for macro programming.

## Web Functions

ENCODEURL
ENCODEURL(text)
Returns a URL-encoded string.
FILTERXML
FILTERXML(xml, xpath)
Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified xpath.
WEBSERVICE
WEBSERVICE(url)
Returns data from a web service.